HIV, Hepatitis & STIs

HIV/STI/Hep Epidemiology

Daniel, N. A., Hassan, S. A., Mohamed, F. et al. (2022). Harambee! 2.0: The Impact of HIV-Related and Intersectional Stigmas on HIV Testing Behaviors Among African Immigrant Communities in Seattle, Washington. AIDS Behav 26, 149–164 (2022).

Erly, S., Roberts, D.A., Kerani, R. et al. (2021). Assessing HIV Care Outcomes Among African-Born People Living with HIV in Seattle: An Analysis of the University of Washington Electronic Medical Record. J Immigrant Minority Health 23, 1136–1144.

Roberts, D. A., Kerani, R., Tsegaselassie, S., Abera, S., Lynes, A., Scott, E., et al. (2019). Harambee!: A pilot mixed-methods study of integrated residential HIV testing among African-born individuals in the Seattle area. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216502.

Demeke, H. B., Johnson, A. S., Wu, B., Nwangwu-Ike, N., King, H., Dean, H. D. (2019). Differences between U.S.-born and non–U.S.-born Black adults reported with diagnosed HIV infection—United States, 2008–2014. J Immigr Minor Health. 21(1):30-38. doi: 10.1007/s10903-018-0699-4.

Demeke, H. D., Johnson, A. S., Wu, B., Moonesinghe, R., & Dean, H. D. (2018). Unequal Declines in Absolute and Relative Disparities in HIV Diagnoses Among Black Women, United States, 2008 to 2016.  American Journal of Public Health 108, no. S4: pp. S299-S303. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304641

Massoumi, H., Buchheit, K., Gunturu, S., Thlick, J. E., & Gaglio, P. (2016). Clinical characteristics of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa. Hepatitis Monthly

Ashton, C., Bernhardt, S. A., Lowe, M., Mietchen, M., & Johnston, J. (2012). Comparison of HIV/AIDS rates between U.S.-born Blacks and African-born Blacks in Utah, 2000 – 2009. The open AIDS journal, 6, 156-62.

Kwakwa, H. A., Doggett, P., Ubaldi-Rosen, R., McClellan, K., Gaye, O. H., Gebreselassie, M., Robbins, J. M. (2012). African-born men in the United States are diagnosed with HIV later than African-born women. J Natl Med Assoc. 104(1–2):14–9.

Johnson, A. S., Hu, X., & Dean, H. D. (2010). Epidemiologic differences between native-born and foreign-born black people diagnosed with HIV infection in 33 U.S. states, 2001-2007. Public Health Reports, 125(Suppl. 4), 61–69. doi: 10.1177/00333549101250S410

Libby, C., Page, L. C., et al. (2009). Access to Regular HIV Care and Disease Progression among Black African Immigrants. J Natl Med Assoc.101(12):1230-6.

Akinsete, O. O., Sides, T., Hirigoyen, D., et al. (2007). Demographic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of African-born persons with HIV/AIDS in a Minnesota hospital. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(5):356–65.

Harawa, N. T., Bingham, T. A., Cochran, S. D., Greenland, S., Cunningham, W. E. (2002). HIV prevalence among foreign- and US-born clients of public STD clinics. Am J Public Health. 92(12):1958–63.

Sociocultural Context of HIV/STI/Hep Risk Factors & Barriers to Care

Okoro, O. N., & Whitson, S. O. (2019). Sexual Health, HIV Care and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in the African Immigrant Population: A Needs Assessment. J Immigr Minor Health. doi: 10.1007/s10903-019-00873-x. [Epub ahead of print]

Ross, J., Akiyama, M. J., Slawek, D., Stella, J., Nichols, K., Bekele, M., Cunningham, C. O., & Blackstock, O. J. (2019). Undocumented African Immigrants’ Experiences of HIV Testing and Linkage to Care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2019 Jul;33(7):336-341. doi: 10.1089/apc.2019.0036. Epub 2019 Jun 13.


Ojikutu, B., Nnaji, C., Sithole-Berk, J., Masongo, D., Nichols, K., Weeks, N., Ngminebayihi, M., Bishop, E., & Bogart, L. M. (2018). African born women living with HIV in the United States: unmet needs and opportunities for intervention, AIDS Care, 30:12, 1542-1550, DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1497767

Ogunbajo, A., Anyamele, C., Restar, A. J., Dolezal, C., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2018). Substance Use and Depression Among Recently Migrated African Gay and Bisexual Men Living in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. doi: 10.1007/s10903-018-0849-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Sabri, B. (2018). Perspectives on Factors Related to HIV Risk and Preventative Interventions at Multiple Levels: A Study of African Immigrant Women Survivors of Cumulative Trauma. AIDS Education and Prevention 30:5, 419-433.

Kerani, R. P., Herbeck, J. T., Buskin, S. E., Dombrowksi, J. C., Bennett, A., Barash, E., Barbee, L. A., & Golden, M. R. (2017). Evidence of Local HIV Transmission in the African Community of King County, Washington. Journal of immigrant and minority health, 19(4), 891-896.

Okoro, O. N., & Whitson, S. O. (2017). HIV risk and barriers to care for African-born immigrant women: a sociocultural outlook. International journal of women’s health, 9, 421-429. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S129355

Connor, J. J., et al. (2016). The East African HIV prevention model: Perspectives from HIV-positive male immigrants living in the USA. Cogent Medicine, 3(1), 1175402.

Ebrahim, N. B., et al. (2016). Correlates of Condom Use Among Somali and Ethiopian Immigrants in the U.S. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 18:5, 1139-1147.

De Jesus, M., Carrete, C., Maine, C., & Nalls, P. (2015). “Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials”: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among east African immigrant women. AIDS Care, 27(5), 604–611. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2014.1002827

Akinsulure-Smith, A. (2014). Exploring HIV Knowledge, Risk and Protective Factors Among West African Forced Migrants in New York City. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 16:3, 481-491.

Bova, C., Nnaji, C., Woyah, A., & Duah, A. (2014). HIV stigma, testing attitudes and health care access among African-born men living in the United States.  J of Imm and Minority Health.(published ahead of print) doi: 10.1007/s 10903-014-0136-2.

Ojikutu, B., Nnaji, C., Sithole-Berk, J. (2014). Barriers to HIV testing in black immigrants to the US. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 25(3):1052–66.

Feresu, S., and Smith, L. (2013). Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS of Sudanese and Bantu Somali immigrant women living in Omaha, Nebraska. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine 03:01, 84-98.

Ojikutu, B., Nnaji, C., Berk, J., Schneider, K. L., et al. (2013).  All Black people are not alike: differences in HIV testing patterns, knowledge and experience of stigma between US-born and non-US born Blacks in Massachusetts. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 27:45-54

Worthington, C., Este, D., Strain, K., Huffey, N. (2013). African immigrant views of HIV service needs: Gendered perspectives. AIDS Care. 25:103–108. DOI:

Omollo, K., et al. (2010). Access Impediments to Health Care and Social Services Between Anglophone and Francophone African Immigrants Living in Philadelphia with Respect to HIV/AIDS. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 12:4, 569-579.

Ong’uti, S. K. (2010). Qualitative Assessment of HIV Prevention Needs among Recent African Immigrants in Maryland. Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Infectious Disease and Environmental Health Administration.

Mitha, K., Yirsalign, M., Cherner, M., McCutchan, A., Langford, T. D. (2009). Risk Perception and Beliefs Regarding HIV Infection among Ethiopian Immigrants. AIDS Education and Prevention 21:5, 484-494.

De Jesus, M. (2007). HIV/AIDS and immigrant Cape Verdean women: Contextualized perspectives of Cape Verdean community advocates. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1–2), 121–131. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9091-6

Othieno. J. (2007). Understanding how contextual realities affect African born immigrants and refugees living with HIV in accessing care in the Twin Cities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 18(3 Suppl):170–88.

Tompkins, M., Smith, L., Jones, K., Swindells, S. (2006). HIV education needs among Sudanese immigrants and refugees in the Midwestern United States. AIDS Behav. 10(3):319–23.

Foley, E. E. (2005). HIV/AIDS and African immigrant women in Philadelphia: structural and cultural barriers to care. AIDS Care. 17(8):1030–43.

Collins, O., Airhihenbuwa, J., & DeWitt, W. (2004). Culture and African contexts of HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support, SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access Journal, 1:1, 4-13, DOI: 10.1080/17290376.2004.9724822

Rosenthal, L., Scott, D. P., Kelleta, Z., et al. (2003). Assessing the HIV/AIDS health services needs of African immigrants to Houston. AIDS Educ Prev. 15(6):570–80.

HIV Stigma

Nevin, P. E., Frey, S., Lipira, L., Endeshaw, M., Niemann, L., Kerani, R. P., & Rao, D. (2018). “You are always hiding. It’s the worst way to live.” Exploring Stigma in African Immigrants Living With HIV in a Large Northwest U.S. Metropolitan Area. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC, 29(3), 417–425. doi:10.1016/j.jana.2017.11.005

Koku, E. F. (2010). HIV-related stigma among African immigrants living with HIV/AIDS in USA. Sociological Research Online.  15(3), 5.

HIV/STI/Hep Interventions Engaging African Immigrants

Lipira, L., Nevin, P. E., Frey, S., Velonjara, J., Endeshaw, M., Kumar, S., Mohanraj, R., Kerani, R. P., Simoni, J. M., & Rao, D. (2019). The Positive Living Program: Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Multimedia Behavioral Intervention to Address HIV-Related Stigma and Depression Among African-Immigrant People Living With HIV in a Large, Northwestern U.S. Metropolitan Area. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC, 30(2), 224–231.

Kingori, C., et al. (2016). Recommendations for Developing Contextually Relevant HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies Targeting African-Born Immigrants and Refugees in the United States. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 30(10):476-483.

Kwakwa, H. A., Wahome, R., Goines, D. S., Jabateh, V., Green, A., Bessias, S., & Flanigan, T.P. (2016). Engaging African and Caribbean Immigrants in HIV Testing and Care in a Large US City: Lessons Learned from the African Diaspora Health Initiative. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19, 818-824.

Nnaji, C., et al. (2016). Safety Net Party: A Group-Based Program to Prevent HIV/STDs in African-Born Women in the United States. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. Sep-Oct;27(5):731-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jana.2016.04.009.

Shankar, H., Blanas, D., Bichoupan, K., Ndiaye, D., Carmody, E., Martel-Laferriere, V., et al. (2016). A novel collaborative community-based hepatitis B screening and linkage to care program for african immigrants. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62, 289–297.

Nnaji, C., & Metzger, N. (2014). Black is decidedly not just Black: a case study on HIV among African-born populations living in Massachusetts. Trotter Review. 22(1):120-150.

Woyah, A., Nnaji, C., Bova, C. (2014). Planning and implementing a statewide soccer HIV awareness and health promotion intervention for African-born men. JANAC; 25: 675-681.


Koku, E. F., Rajab-Gyagenda, W. M., Korto, M. D., Morrison, S. D., Beyene. Y., Mbajah, J., Ashton, C. (2016). HIV/AIDS among African Immigrants in the U.S.: The Need for Disaggregating HIV Surveillance Data by Country of Birth. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 27(3):1316-29. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2016.0128.

News and Magazine Articles

Kukka, C. (2016). Advocates Raise Awareness About African Immigrants’ High Risk of Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B Foundation. Retrieved from

Anderson, C. (2010). Helping immigrants learn to talk openly about AIDS. The Seattle Times. Retrieved at

Brulliard, K. (2008).  HIV Rates Spur Outreach to African Immigrants. Washington Post. Retrieved at

Joseph, N. (2007). African in America: What do we mean when we talk about “black AIDS”? POZ. Retrieved at

Didier, E. (2001). African Immigrants Affected by HIV. The Body. Retrieved at

Literature Reviews

Aidoo-Frimpong, G., Agbemenu, K. & Orom, H. (2021). A Review of Cultural Influences on Risk for HIV and Culturally-Responsive Risk Mitigation Strategies Among African Immigrants in the US. J Immigrant Minority Health 23, 1280–1292.

Blanas, D. A., Nichols, K., Bekele, M., Lugg, A., Kerani, R. P., Horowitz, C. R. (2013). HIV/AIDS among African-born residents in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(4):718–724.